Introduction to solar cell modules
Solar cell modules are composed of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells, ultra-white cloth grain tempered glass, EVA, transparent TPT backplane and aluminum alloy frame. It has the characteristics of long service life, strong mechanical compression and external force.
Solar cell module
Varieties of solar cell modules
(1) Monocrystalline silicon solar cell the photoelectric conversion power of monocrystalline silicon solar cell is about 17%, the highest reaches 24%, which is the highest in all kinds of solar cell photoelectric conversion power, but the production cost is very high, so that it can not be widely used. Because monocrystalline silicon is generally packaged with toughened glass and waterproof resin, it is strong and durable. Most manufacturers generally provide a 25-year quality guarantee.
Single crystal flexible solar module: flexible solar module is also known as flexible module, the so-called flexible, refers to the panel can be bent. Bending point of view up to 30 degrees. Solar cell module (also called solar panel) is the core part of solar power generation system, is the most important part of solar power generation system.
(2) Polysilicon solar cells the production process of polysilicon solar cells is similar to that of monocrystalline silicon solar cells, but the photoelectric conversion power of polysilicon solar cells is much reduced, and its photoelectric conversion power is about 15%. In terms of production cost, it is cheaper than monocrystalline silicon solar cells, the material is simple, the power consumption is saved, the total production cost is low, so it gets a lot of development. In addition, the service life of polysilicon solar cells is shorter than that of monocrystalline solar cells. In terms of performance-price ratio, monocrystalline silicon solar cells are slightly better.
Amorphous silicon solar cell is a new thin-film solar cell presented in 1976. It is completely different from monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon solar cells in the production method. The process is greatly simplified. However, the primary problem of amorphous silicon solar cells is that the photoelectric conversion power is low, the international advanced level is about 10%, and it is not stable. With the extension of time, its conversion power degrades.
Solar cell module
Solar cell module features
With high photoelectric conversion power, high reliability; Advanced diffusion skills to ensure the uniformity of power conversion throughout the chip; Ensure good electrical conductivity, strong adhesion and good electrode weldability; High precision screen printing graphics and high flatness make the battery easy to actively weld and laser cut.
Solar module principle introduction
The energy converter of solar photovoltaic power generation is SolarCell, also known as photovoltaic cell. PhotovoltaicEffect can be used to generate electricity from a solar cell. When sunlight hits a solar cell, the cell absorbs light energy, resulting in photoelectron-hole pairs. Under the effect of the electric field built in the battery, the photogenerated electrons and holes are separated, and the accumulation of different charge at both ends of the battery occurs, which is the "photogenerated voltage", which is the "photogenerated voltaic effect". If electrodes are drawn on either side of the built-in electric field and a load is connected, a "photogenerated current" flows through the load and power output is obtained. In this way, the sun's light energy is converted directly into usable electrical energy.
At the same temperature, the influence of light intensity on solar panel: the greater the light intensity, the greater the open circuit voltage and short circuit current of solar panel, and the greater the maximum output power. Together, it can be seen that the change of open circuit voltage with the irradiation intensity is not as significant as the change of short circuit current with the irradiation intensity.
Under the same light intensity, the influence of temperature on the solar panel: when the solar cell temperature increases, its output open circuit voltage decreases significantly with the temperature, short circuit current slightly increases, the general trend is the maximum output power decreases. Solar panel
How to know the maximum output power of solar module
How to know the maximum output power of solar modules solar panel manufacturers
The nominal power of photovoltaic modules is tested under standard conditions. There are different opinions on whether the actual power generation may exceed the nominal power. This is also one of the problems not paid attention to in the design of photovoltaic power stations, which will affect the selection of the inverter and the power generation of the system.
Solar radiation: The radiation power radiated by the sun to a unit area, called solar radiation. The units are watts per square meter. Component nominal power is tested under standard conditions, STC (standardtestcondiTIon), whose standardtest conditions are: 1. Irradiance: 1000W/m2, 2. Temperature: (25±1) ℃, 3. Spectral characteristics: AM1.5 standard spectrum.
So the maximum output power of the component, not considering the inverter and other equipment elements, is the solar irradiance and temperature. The maximum value of solar radiation is solar constant, 1368W/m2. After reaching the earth surface, it is affected by weather and other aspects, and the maximum value is about 1200W/m2. The power temperature system of the component is about -0.39%/℃.
Conclusion: The maximum output power of a 250W component is Pmax=1.2* (1- (25+30) (-0.0039) *250=1.2*1.1755*250=352.65W at minus 30 ° C without considering equipment loss. In fact, in the sunniest regions of China, such as northern Ningxia, northern Gansu and southern Xinjiang, the maximum output power of a 250W module can reach 300W.
The spectral knowledge of sunlight: sunlight is a mixture of continuously changing light of different wavelengths, including a variety of wavelengths of light: infrared, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet, ultraviolet, etc., among which red, orange, yellow, green, indigo, blue, violet are visible light, visible to human eyes. The longer part of the wavelength is red light, the longer wavelength than red light is infrared light, the shorter part of the wavelength is violet light, the longer wavelength than violet light is ultraviolet light, although the wavelength range of the solar spectrum is very wide, from a few angstroms to dozens of meters, but the size of the radiation energy according to the distribution of the wavelength is uneven. The largest zone in the radiation energy in the visible part, accounts for about 48%, ultraviolet radiation spectrum area accounted for about 8%, the infrared radiation energy spectrum area accounted for about 44%, the solar cell can absorb visible part of the energy, into electricity, ultraviolet spectrum area energy cannot be changed, the infrared spectral region can only be converted into heat.
Solar radiation: The amount of energy radiated by the sun to a unit area over a period of time is called radiation. Factors that affect radiation levels include: solar energy from power systems
1, the sun's altitude Angle or latitude: the greater the sun's altitude Angle, the shorter the way through the atmosphere, the smaller the weakening effect of the atmosphere on the solar radiation, the stronger the solar radiation to the ground; The larger the solar altitude Angle is, the smaller the area of the same amount of solar radiation is distributed, and the stronger the solar radiation is. For example, the solar radiation at midday is stronger than it will be sooner or later.
2. Altitude: The higher the altitude, the thinner the air, the less the weakening effect of the atmosphere on the solar radiation, and the stronger the solar radiation reaching the ground. For example, the Tibetan Plateau has the strongest solar radiation in China.
3. Weather conditions: there are few clouds in sunny days, which has little weakening effect on solar radiation and strong solar radiation reaching the ground. For example, in cloudy and rainy weather in Sichuan Basin, solar radiation weakened and became the lowest value area in China.
4. Atmospheric transparency: high atmospheric transparency has little weakening effect on solar radiation, so that the solar radiation arriving on the ground is strong.
The length of the day.
6, the degree of air pollution: pollution is heavy, the solar radiation is weak and strong, less solar radiation arrives on the ground.
The sunniest region in the world is east of the Sahara Desert, with an average of 4,300 hours of sunshine per year, or about 11 hours and 45 minutes of brilliant sunlight per day.